**Welcome to the Free Energy project, an open educational resource textbook for Physical Chemistry I & II!**

Largely focused on undergraduate (junior to senior) level thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, Free Energy is a community-wide effort to reduce the burden of post-secondary education by eliminating the cost of college textbooks. Eight years in the making thanks to support by the University of Illinois Chicago, the textbook has all original content including problem sets. ISBN 979-8-218-34940-0.

**Download** the latest copy here. Included under the downloads tab are the text’s original figure files (tiff and Illustrator/Photoshop formats). Also the .docx is available (note: it’s a very large file).

Our program is unique as we allow you, the adoptee, to modify all the original source material at will to suit your needs.

**Homework answer keys are available!** Please contact Prof. Snee, who will verify your credentials and then forward requested materials to your university’s sponsored email.

## Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Gas Equations of State

1.1 Units and the Perfect Gas Law

1.2 Van der Waals Equation

1.3 The Virial Equation

1.4 Phase Transitions

1.5 Corresponding States

Problems

Chapter 2: Energy

2.1 Changes of energy: work and heat

2.2 Work, and the Inexact Differential

2.2 Reversible and Irreversible Transitions

2.3 Exact and Inexact Partials and Euler’s Test

2.4 Internal Energy (U) and the Equipartition Theorem

2.5 Heat Transactions, Heat Capacity, and Adiabatic Systems

Problems

Chapter 3: Enthalpy, Legendre Transforms, and Thermodynamic Proofs

3.1 Enthalpy and Changing Functions

3.2 Heat Capacities

3.3 Natural Variables and Legendre Transforms

3.4 The Joule and Joule-Thomson Experiments

Problems

Chapter 4: Entropy and the 2^{nd}Law

4.1. Introduction to Entropy

4.2 Entropy Inside and Outside: The 2nd Law and the Clausius Inequality

4.3 Calculating Entropy Changes

4.4 The Car Engine, and the Carnot Cycle

4.5 Maxwell Relationships

Problems

Chapter 5: Helmholtz and Gibbs Energy

5.1 Helmholtz Energy (and The Clausius Inequality Pt. II)

5.2 Gibbs Energy

5.3 What is Free Energy? Pt. I

5.4 Calculations: Numerical and Derivations

5.5 Advanced Derivations: Maxwell Relationships II

Problems

Chapter 6: Chemical Thermodynamics

6.1 Entropy and the 3^{rd}Law

6.2 Energy, It’s All Relative

6.3 Enthalpy and Gibbs Energy of Formation: Hess’s Law examples

6.4 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Potential

6.5 Equilibrium Constants

6.6 What is Free Energy? Pt. II

Problems

Chapter 7: Solutions and Colligative Properties

7.1. Partial Vapor Pressure

7.2 Partial Pressure Measurements and Raoult’s Law

7.3 Excess Functions and Ideal Solutions

7.4 Henry’s Law, Activity, and Ideal-Dilute Solutions

7.5 Colligative Properties

Problems

Chapter 8: Phase Changes

8.1 The Gibbs Phase Rule

8.2 Entropy is the Reason Phase Changes Occur

8.3 Other Examples of Phase Changes

Problems

Chapter 9: Surfaces, Interfaces and Electrochemistry

9.1 Surfaces and Surface Energy

9.2 Surface Expansion Work

9.3 Electrochemistry and the Nernst Equation

Problems

Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Gas

10.1 Probability vs. Probability Distribution

10.2 The Boltzmann Distribution

10.3 Average and RMS Velocities

10.4 Average Relative Velocity and Collision Frequency

Problems

Appendix

Chapter 11: Boltzmann Statistics

11.1 The Blackbody Radiator

11.2 Heat Capacity of Solids

Problems

Chapter 12: Introduction to the Schrödinger Equation

12.1 Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

12.2 The Schrödinger Equation

12.3 Born Interpretation

12.4 The Eigenvalue Equation and Operators

12.5 The Freewave Potential

Problems

Chapter 13: Potential Surfaces and the Heisenberg Uncertainly Principle

13.1 Potential Energy Surfaces

13.2 Complex Potential Energy Surfaces: Vibration

13.3 Uncertainty and Superposition: Wavefunctions as Waves

13.4 Perturbation Theory

Problems

Appendix

Chapter 14: Multidimensional Quantum Mechanics and Rotation

14.1 Multidimensional Free waves and the Particle in a Cube

14.2 Rotational Quantum Mechanics: Introduction

14.3 Wavefunctions

14.4 Spin Angular Momentum

14.5 Angular Momentum Operators

14.6 Addition of Angular Momentum and Term Symbols

Problems

Chapter 15: The Hydrogen Atom

15.1 The Bohr Model

15.2 The Hydrogen Schrödinger Equation

15.3 Hydrogen Radial Wavefunctions

15.4 Spin-Orbit Coupling

15.5 Spectroscopy

15.6 Multielectron Atoms and Exchange

Appendix

Problems

Chapter 16: Kinetics

16.1 What is a Reaction Rate?

16.2 Rate Laws and 1^{st}Order Kinetics

16.3 Rate Laws and 2^{nd}Order Kinetics

16.4 Consecutive Reactions

16.5 Reaction Mechanisms

16.6 Biological Kinetics

Problems

Email Preston T. Snee with comments or questions.